Carried by the Spirit

“Carried by the Spirit: Our Hearts Sing”

Discerning Meaning during the COVID-19 Pandemic

Edited by Maria Marshall and Edward Marshall

Published through the Ottawa Institute of Logotherapy

New book available on Amazon

September 2, 2020 Paperback; September 3, 2020 Kindle

Contributors from around the world recorded their experiential observations and reflections on how the principles of Viktor E. Frankl’s Logotherapy and Existential Analysis (LTEA), a meaning-centered psychotherapy, can activate the resources of the human spirit to increase resilience and alleviate existential suffering while facing the consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic.

The writing process blossomed into an expression of selfless giving and self transcendence. Words of wisdom, courage and solace emerged in response to suffering. Healing words sprang forth in response to the wounds of humanity. A circle of care from person to person overarched our world to respond to the COVID-19 pandemic with care and compassion.

The book includes an original article from 1935, authored by Dr. Viktor E. Frankl (1905-1997), which is published for the first time in the English translation with permission from the Viktor Frankl Archives in Vienna. This edifying instance offers a unique insight into Dr. Frankl’s work. His humanity and closeness to his patients offers a legacy that enriches our understanding of what it means to be a loving human being.

The editors gratefully acknowledge the support of Prof. Dr. Franz Vesely and Dr. Gabrielle Vesely-Frankl at the Viktor Frankl Archives and the Viktor Frankl Estate, Vienna, who granted permission to include an original article written by Prof. Dr. Viktor Emil Frankl in 1935. We are thankful for their acquaintance and friendship.

We wish to thank all our colleagues for the gift of their presence and caring. Especially our contributors: Dr. Teria Shantall, Rabbi Dr. Reuven P. Bulka, C. M., Dr. Tamas Ungar, Valquiria Gonҫalves de Oliveira and Dr. Eugenio Ferri, Dr. Meba Alphonse Kanda, Prof. Dr. Rachel B. Asagba, Matti Ameli, Mar Ortiz, Prof. Dr. Daniele Bruzzone, Dr. José Martínez-Romero Gandos, Prof. Rev. Andrzej Jastrzebski, Prof. Rev. Wladimir Porreca, Dr. Adriana Sosa Terradas, Dr. Robert Hutzell and Vicki Hutzell, Sharon Jones, Dr. Cynthia Wimberly, Dr. Willem Maas, Prof. Dr. Svetlana Shtukareva, Panayiota Ryall, Erika Dunkelberg, Rev. Zoltán Nyúl, David E. White, Sladjana Milošević, Mónica Montes de Solares, Elena Osipova, Sabine Indinger, Blanca Ramirez Gonzales, Prof. Dr. Vladimira Velički, and Miro Raguž.

This book was written in solidarity with those who suffer from the global impact of the COVID-19 pandemic.

All proceeds from the sale of this book will be donated to a United Nations fund aiding refugees and displaced persons.

Meaning is a need or meaning as a need?

Meaning is not a “need” in the sense of basic needs that are ends to themselves and their aim is rest and homeostasis upon fulfillment until the next need arises-as is the process in the dimensions of the body and mind (i.e. Frankl, Existential Dynamics in the Will to Meaning). In the dimension of spirit, existential dynamics is fundamentally reaching beyond oneself toward meaning. There is a tension between being and meaning. Between what is and what could be, should be, ought to be. That is why Dr. Frankl spoke of a “will to meaning” instead of a “need” to meaning.

In relationships, one can have different ways of relating: physical, emotional, psychological, and spiritual. The depth and height of this bond can evolve, mature and “grow” to mutual transcendence toward meaning–love as a spiritual act, free and responsible dedication and commitment. In such relationship a physical-emotional bond reflects and corresponds to the the highest form of valuing and spiritual communion (i.e. Frankl on the Meaning of Love in the Doctor and the Soul).

Do we “need” meaning? Do we need meaning in relationships?

Let Dr. Frankl answer:

“But let us come back to the issue of meaning: I hope I could show you that man’s basic concern is neither the will to power, nor a will to pleasure, but a will to meaning, his search for meaning-precisely that which is so much being frustrated today! But man needs not only meaning but also something else: he needs the example and model of people who have fulfilled the meaning of their lives, or at least are on the way to do so. And this is precisely the moment at which the issue of the family comes in. For I regard the family as a lifelong opportunity to watch and witness what it means to fulfill meaning in life by living for others, nay, by living for each other: the family, indeed, is an arena where mutual self-transcendence is enacted!” (Frankl, 2010, The Feeling of Meaninglessness. Milwaukee, WI: Marquette Press p. 205).

In our spirit, we can take a stand toward what our physical, social or psychological circumstances may be. Our social connections can be a source of meaning. Our connections to other people can encompass different dimensions.Spiritual connectivity can transcend the dimension of human.

How much we long for meaningful relationships in our human family today….

“Maslow’s distinction between higher and lower needs does not take into account that when lower needs are not satisfied, a higher need, such as the will to meaning, may become most urgent” (Frankl, The Unheard Cry for Meaning, 1978; p. 33).

Culture and Personality

There is a role for education to help individuals develop their personality throughout life. Beyond the influences from the somatic and psychological dimensions, the person has the capacity to reflect and decide how to respond to life. The freedom of will of the human spirit also influences culture, since culture is amenable to develop over time. Personality relates to the individual whereas culture relates to the community. Within the community individuals exercise their freedom with responsibility. Their lives and response to life have consequences on other members of the community.

There has been an emphasis on the discoveries of determining factors in society. To have a complete picture of what humans are capable these factors need to be complemented with acknowledging the human capacity to decide a meaningful response to the environment. To bring awareness of the human capacity to freely respond to reality in spite of conditioning factors according to reasonable judgment is one of the roles of education and psychotherapy.

For example, we may reach conclusions through statistical research about the influence of the economy on mental health and how an economic crisis situation can precipitate a mental health deterioration on predisposed individuals. The person can feel excluded from the community or develop low self-esteem because it becomes impossible to keep up with expectations of society. On the other hand each individual can develop the capacity not to be completely determined by such external factors. This is the time to look outwards to what can be done to improve the situation which may benefit the community as a whole.

The person needs to take the initiative beyond expectations in their particular circumstances to the benefit of the community even though the community is not expecting much from the person. Leaders in position of power have it easier to exercise this capacity of outreaching to the community since this is what is expected from them, but individuals suffering from lack of employment, failure, marginalization, the effects of immigration, minorities, chronically ill, disabled, etc., are not expected to contribute much to the community, and their input is perceived at times bothersome and unwelcome. These are the individuals who require to mobilize the resources of the human spirit the most in order to reaffirm their dignity, uniqueness and humanity. In essence, to become leaders, or agents of change in their own right.

The first step to strengthen the capacities of the human spirit is an invisible change that happens inside the person to perceive the world not as a threat but as a place to explore and improve. From the time the person starts to think about how to reach out to others rather than focusing only on personal problems there starts to be a benefit for the community. This internal spiritual change, may translate into action, to alleviate the suffering of those around the person.

According to personality theories, there are certain types of personality which may have it easier to develop this outward way of thinking. This doesn’t mean that this change is not possible or available to any individual.

Breaking the barrier from changes in interior life to visible action can also have its difficulties, since there would be a reaction from other members of the community, not necessarily encouraging or welcoming. There may be reluctance that the change comes from the so called marginalized, since the majority of the community have excluded those individuals in the first place. It is then when the individual needs to put to the test the defiant power of the human spirit fighting for what is right. This is a psychological fight rather that a physical one. The individual needs to adapt and be flexible to aim at what is possible within their means to promote peace, compassion, and love, to those afflicted by suffering. Encouraging peer support, community building, friendship and love are possible targets in most situations.

Personal and community development are about learning how to respond to life situations meaningfully. Personality and culture are developing in the right direction when there is a process put in place involving the search for meaning. Most of the times to find the right answer to the world problems requires a search for the best option, since it is very difficult to get it right at the first attempt, with subsequent initiatives required, to respond adequately to the same or unprecedented problems.